6 Process Selection and Facility Layout Learning Objectives icon

6 Process Selection and Facility Layout Learning Objectives

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Indir 445 b.
Title6 Process Selection and Facility Layout Learning Objectives
Date conversion23.12.2012
Size445 b.
TypeDocuments
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6

  • Process Selection and Facility Layout


Learning Objectives

  • Explain the strategic importance of process selection.

  • Explain the influence that process selection has on an organization.

  • Describe the basic processing types.

  • Discuss automated approaches to processing.

  • Explain the need for management of technology.



Learning Objectives

  • List some reasons for redesign of layouts.

  • Describe the basic layout types.

  • List the main advantages and disadvantages of product layouts and process layouts.

  • Solve simple line-balancing problems.

  • Develop simple process layouts.



Introduction

  • Process selection

    • Deciding on the way production of goods or services will be organized
  • Major implications

    • Capacity planning
    • Layout of facilities
    • Equipment
    • Design of work systems


Process Selection and System Design





Technology

  • Technology: The application of scientific discoveries to the development and improvement of products and services and operations processes.

  • Technology innovation: The discovery and development of new or improved products, services, or processes for producing or providing them.



Kinds of Technology

  • Operations management is primarily concerned with three kinds of technology:

    • Product and service technology
    • Process technology
    • Information technology
  • All three have a major impact on:

    • Costs
    • Productivity
    • Competitiveness


Technology Competitive Advantage

  • Innovations in

    • Products and services
      • Cell phones
      • PDAs
      • Wireless computing
    • Processing technology
      • Increasing productivity
      • Increasing quality
      • Lowering costs


Technology Acquisition

  • Technology can have benefits but …

  • Technology risks include:

    • What technology will and will not do
    • Technical issues
    • Economic issues
      • Initial costs, space, cash flow, maintenance
      • Consultants and/or skilled employees
      • Integration cost, time resources
      • Training, safety, job loss


Process Selection

  • Variety

    • How much
  • Flexibility

    • What degree
  • Volume

    • Expected output


Process Types

  • Job shop

    • Small scale
  • Batch

    • Moderate volume
  • Repetitive/assembly line

    • High volumes of standardized goods or services
  • Continuous

    • Very high volumes of non-discrete goods


Product and Service Processes



Product – Process Matrix



Product and Process Profiling

  • Process selection can involve substantial investment in

    • Equipment
    • Layout of facilities
  • Product profiling: Linking key product or service requirements to process capabilities

  • Key dimensions

    • Range of products or services
    • Expected order sizes
    • Pricing strategies
    • Expected schedule changes
    • Order winning requirements


Automation

  • Automation: Machinery that has sensing and control devices that enables it to operate

    • Fixed automation
    • Programmable automation




Facilities Layout

  • Layout: the configuration of departments, work centers, and equipment, with particular emphasis on movement of work (customers or materials) through the system

      • Product layouts
      • Process layouts
      • Fixed-Position layout
      • Combination layouts


Objective of Layout Design

  • Facilitate attainment of product or service quality

  • Use workers and space efficiently

  • Avoid bottlenecks

  • Minimize unnecessary material handling costs

  • Eliminate unnecessary movement of workers or materials

  • Minimize production time or customer service time

  • Design for safety



Importance of Layout Decisions

  • Requires substantial investments of money and effort

  • Involves long-term commitments

  • Has significant impact on cost and efficiency of short-term operations



The Need for Layout Decisions



The Need for Layout Design (Cont’d)



Basic Layout Types

  • Product layouts

  • Process layouts

  • Fixed-Position layout

  • Combination layouts



Basic Layout Types

  • Product layout

    • Layout that uses standardized processing operations to achieve smooth, rapid, high-volume flow
  • Process layout

    • Layout that can handle varied processing requirements
  • Fixed Position layout

    • Layout in which the product or project remains stationary, and workers, materials, and equipment are moved as needed


Product Layout



Advantages of Product Layout

  • High rate of output

  • Low unit cost

  • Labor specialization

  • Low material handling cost

  • High utilization of labor and equipment

  • Established routing and scheduling

  • Routing accounting and purchasing



Disadvantages of Product Layout

  • Creates dull, repetitive jobs

  • Poorly skilled workers may not maintain equipment or quality of output

  • Fairly inflexible to changes in volume

  • Highly susceptible to shutdowns

  • Needs preventive maintenance

  • Individual incentive plans are impractical



A U-Shaped Production Line



Process Layout



Product Layout



Advantages of Process Layouts

  • Can handle a variety of processing requirements

  • Not particularly vulnerable to equipment failures

  • Equipment used is less costly

  • Possible to use individual incentive plans



Disadvantages of Process Layouts

  • In-process inventory costs can be high

  • Challenging routing and scheduling

  • Equipment utilization rates are low

  • Material handling slow and inefficient

  • Complexities often reduce span of supervision

  • Special attention for each product or customer

  • Accounting and purchasing are more involved



Fixed Position Layouts

  • Fixed Position Layout: Layout in which the product or project remains stationary, and workers, materials, and equipment are moved as needed.

  • Nature of the product dictates this type of layout

    • Weight
    • Size
    • Bulk
  • Large construction projects



Cellular Layouts

  • Cellular Production

    • Layout in which machines are grouped into a cell that can process items that have similar processing requirements
  • Group Technology

    • The grouping into part families of items with similar design or manufacturing characteristics


Functional vs. Cellular Layouts



Service Layouts

  • Warehouse and storage layouts

  • Retail layouts

  • Office layouts

  • Service layouts must be aesthetically pleasing as well as functional



Design Product Layouts: Line Balancing



Cycle Time



Determine Maximum Output



Determine the Minimum Number of Workstations Required



Precedence Diagram



Example 1: Assembly Line Balancing

  • Arrange tasks shown in Figure 6.10 into three workstations.

    • Use a cycle time of 1.0 minute
    • Assign tasks in order of the most number of followers


Example 1 Solution



Calculate Percent Idle Time



Line Balancing Rules

  • Assign tasks in order of most following tasks.

    • Count the number of tasks that follow
  • Assign tasks in order of greatest positional weight.

    • Positional weight is the sum of each task’s time and the times of all following tasks.


Example 2



Solution to Example 2





Parallel Workstations



Designing Process Layouts

  • Information Requirements:

  • List of departments

  • Projection of work flows

  • Distance between locations

  • Amount of money to be invested

  • List of special considerations

  • Location of key utilities



Example 3: Interdepartmental Work Flows for Assigned Departments



PowerPoint Author’s note:

  • PowerPoint Author’s note:

    • The following three slides are not in the 9e text, but I like to use them for alternate examples.


Process Layout



Functional Layout



Cellular Manufacturing Layout



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